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22-Sep-2017 14:18

Homotherium restoration- although Homotherium were extirpated in Africa 1.5 mya, they had spread throughout Eurasia and the Americas, remaining in South America at least until the Middle Pleistocene, and perishing in all other continents during the late Pleistocene. turkanensis, with a horn-span of around 3 to 4 meters from tip to tip. The Old World tropics were relatively spared the Late Pleistocene extinctions.

Reconstructions of 3 species of the Pleistocene bovid genus Pelorovis In the back is P. Sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia are the only regions that have terrestrial mammals weighing over 1000 kg today.

The earliest casualties were incurred at 130,000 BCE (the start of the Late Pleistocene), however the great majority of extinctions in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas occurred during the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene epoch (13,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE).

However, this extinction wave did not stop at the end of the Pleistocene, but continued, especially on isolated islands, in human-caused extinctions, although there is debate as to whether these should be considered separate events or part of the same event.

The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity, and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.

The most prominent event in the Late Pleistocene is differentiated from previous Quaternary pulse extinctions by the widespread absence of ecological succession to replace these extinct species, and the regime shift of previously established faunal relationships and habitats as a consequence.

Australia is now the only inhabited continent in the world without flamingoes.

In the rest of the Pacific (other Australasian islands such as New Caledonia, and Oceania) although in some respects far later, endemic fauna also usually perished quickly upon the arrival of humans in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene.

The modern Jaguar (Panthera onca), although now restricted to the Americas, originated in Asia, before colonising both sides of Beringia- Europe in the form of the European jaguar, and in the Americas as the predecessors of today's species. Musk oxen, present from Spain to Greenland during the late Pleistocene, were completely extirpated in Eurasia by the subatlantic Holocene- recent reintroductions from the Nearctic have substantiated their range throughout the Arctic.

Climate change has been explored as a prominent cause of extinctions in Southeast Asia.

The American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) was one of four species of flamingo present in Australia in the Quaternary, all of which are now either extinct or extirpated.

A variant of the former possibility is the second-order predation hypothesis, which focuses more on the indirect damage caused by overcompetition with nonhuman predators.

Recent studies have tended to favor the human-overkill theory.

The modern Jaguar (Panthera onca), although now restricted to the Americas, originated in Asia, before colonising both sides of Beringia- Europe in the form of the European jaguar, and in the Americas as the predecessors of today's species. Musk oxen, present from Spain to Greenland during the late Pleistocene, were completely extirpated in Eurasia by the subatlantic Holocene- recent reintroductions from the Nearctic have substantiated their range throughout the Arctic.Climate change has been explored as a prominent cause of extinctions in Southeast Asia.The American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) was one of four species of flamingo present in Australia in the Quaternary, all of which are now either extinct or extirpated.A variant of the former possibility is the second-order predation hypothesis, which focuses more on the indirect damage caused by overcompetition with nonhuman predators.Recent studies have tended to favor the human-overkill theory.For instance, there are ambiguities around the timing of sudden extinctions of Australian megafauna.